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Tibetan have lived in Himalayan Plateau southwest of China for hundreds generations and have adapted to the extreme environment of high altitude. Several candidate genes related to the high-altitude hypoxia adaptation have been revealed that showed large allelic differences between highlander Tibetans and lowlander Han Chinese in recent year. Two hypoxia-related gene, EPAS1 (endothelial PAS domain protein 1; also known as HIF2a) and EGLN1 (egl nine homolog 1; also known as HIF prolylhydroxylase 2, PHD2) are identified to show strong signals of selection. In this paper, the high-altitude adaptation of the Tibetan is reviewed from three aspects including physiological characteristics, high-altitude adaptation genes and SNPs in EPAS1 and EGLN1. In addition, the feasibility of high-altitude adaptation SNPs in forensic application are also reviewed here.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a physical and optical phenomenon. The detection methodologies based on the principle of SPR play an important role as efficient tools in forensic analysis considering their well known advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, easy functioning, rapid analysis speed, affordability and capability of miniaturization and automation. It can realize non-destructive, in-situ, real-time and dynamic measurement in natural conditions, and has been widely used in the fields of biology, medicine, chemistry and forensic science. Numerous articles reporting applications of SPR for the forensic research can be found in the most qualified journals of analytical chemistry, analytical biochemistry, angewandte chemie, analytica chimica acta, biosensors and bioelectronics, etc. This article reviews the most widespread sensing methodologies based on SPR and their applications for the evidence analysis. The mentioned methodologies including the following fields: SPR/SPRi sensors, fiber optic SPR sensor, and localized SPR sensor. The advantages and existing problems of SPR in evidence analysis have also been pointed out. Significant improvements have been achieved in recent years by the combination of SPR with mass spectrometry (MS) which made it possible to be widely used in complex analysis and the real case.
Artificial intelligence technologies gradually rise, which are applied to assist the criminal facts-finding in forensic science, from the early criminal expert auxiliary system to the artificial intelligence technologies based on the bayesian model, to the artificial intelligence technologies based on computational argumention model, artificial intelligence makes the process more scientific, of which the evidences point to the case facts. Artificial intelligence continuously overcomes its technical defects, gets closer to the thinkings and methods of judges and juries to find the criminal case facts, which plays a role to assist the judicial judgment and improve the accuracy of the case facts-finding.
Human skin is the largest human organ, inhabited by a diverse milieu of commensals, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. With the advances in molecular sciences and genomics, we have learned more about the microbial communities in human skins. Though the skin’s exposure to the external environment and the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome can be influenced by many factors，the microbial communities are largely stable over time. They also show site-specificity and individual-specificity. The composition of the skin microbiome may prove a useful indicator of human identification or the time since death. The composition of the skin microbiome may also be a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. The skin microbial communities can provide evidences in many different forensic scenarios, however, most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are many opportunities for further research. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of the human skin microbiome and the research methods which can explore the skin microbial communities at a high resolution and hoping this review may provide a reference for research of the skin microbial communities and practice in forensic science.
Objective To investigate the key point of forensic medical identification in the death of phosphine poisoning .Methods By identificate the death of 4 cases for phosphine poisoning and read the literature review about phosphine poisoning case, the physicochemical properties of phosphine poisoning causes, clinical manifestations, mechanism of poisoning and death, forensic examination, extraction of samples are reviewed. Results There is no specific pathological changes in 4 cases of phosphine poisoning death. Conclusion Case of death for phosphine poisoning forensic must concolusioned based on bodies、investigation、according to the field, and inspect the relevant samples extract in the body.
With the development of molecular biology, forensic scientists aim to transform the research results of molecular biology into forensic science application. Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can provide a strong evidence support for crime scene reconstruction and trial of cases. For a long time, mRNA has not been concerned in forensic science because of its instability and easily degradable characteristics. However, innovations in molecular biology such as endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR, transcriptome analysis have changed the public perception of RNA, laying the foundation for the application of RNA profiling in forensic science. At present, the major method for body fluid identification based on mRNA profiling is to construct compound detection system which can simultaneously detect the expression of various specific markers in different body fluid stains. Since 2011, the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) has organized six collaborative exercises to assess the effectiveness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluids identification. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application in forensic casework, which could provide a theoretical basis for a further research.
Objective The thesis aims at developing the method for the quick analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and infrared spectroscopy of complex components in poisoned dart. Methods After the liquid in poisoned dart were extracted with alkaline ethyl acetate, the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the white precipitate was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Results The results showed that this method could detect suxamethonium chloride and procaine in poisoned dart, and the suxamethonium chloride similarity of retrieval by infrared spectroscopy reached 81.3%. Conclusion This method is simple, sensitive and accurate, it can be used for rapid detection in casework.
Objective A method for detection of synthetic cannabinoids in novel drugs was present with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem electro-spray mass spectrometry. Methods The samples were extracted by methanol with ultrasound and centrifuged, then the supernatant was removed and filtered through a 0.22 μm membrane. The extract was separated on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (4.6×100 mm, 2.7μm) column with a gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.6 mL/min with acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. ESI(+) with dynamic MRM mode was used to detect the eluted synthetic cannabinoids. Relults The qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight common synthetic cannabinoids were carried out. They all showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.5-500 ng/mL. The lowest detection limit was in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng/mL for deferent compounds. The intra-day relative standard deviation were not more than 3.05%, and the interday elative standard deviation were not more than 5%. Conlusion The method presented has the advantages of rapid , sensitive and accurate. It was suitable for identification of synthetic cannabinoids in novel drug abuse cases.
Forensic palynology is a branch of forensic science and plays an important role in criminal cases. In certain circumstances, it can connect a suspect with the scene of a crime, deduce the death time, provide clues as to the source of the drugs, and disprove alibis. The discipline has been widely used in the countries such as New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, followed by other countries. This paper reviews the application cases of forensic palynology over the past 50 years, and further discusses the developmental emphasis and direction.
Objective To explore the synthetic route of MA by analyzing the characteristic impurities of 11 cases of "Golden Triangle" transboundary methamphetamine (MA) which were seized in the border area of Yunnan province, to establish a computer retrieval method for the synthesis pattern recognition of methamphetamine, and provide a basis for homology identification of methamphetamine samples. Methods 11 samples were was detected by GC/MS after extracted by HS-SPME, and the correlation was analyzed by the percent content of Impurity peak area. Results Methamphetamine seized in Yunnan province is mainly synthesized from synthetic ephedrine and synthesized by Emde method. The methamphetamine samples have the possibility of using gasoline instead of organic solvents except for the 2nd and 11th sample. Conclusion The study can be used to predict the correlation between the synthetic route of methamphetamine and the characteristic impurities, and provide technical support for the public security organizations in combating illegal drug-making and drugs.
With the rapid development of China's economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the car has entered more and more ordinary families, ordinary people become the means of transport. With the continuous increase in the number of cars in our country, coupled with the poor awareness of the masses of the theft, often stored in the car belongings, leading to the current theft of property cases around the country. One of the most cases is the implementation of the broken window glass of theft, the scene of the commonly used automobile toughened glass traces of, can not provide strong support for the classification of cases judged by failure to distinguish field glass. In view of the above reasons, the author has worked in practice in recent years, the car broke the glass of the field damage by collecting known, combined with relevant information to carry out research, summarizes several such cases in the common broken window glass discrimination method, a reference for the readers.
Digital evidence acquisition is one of the most important steps of digital forensics, which relates to the efficiency and final results of digital forensics. Traditional techniques of digital evidence acquisition lay the foundation for digital forensics. However, Big Data period brings new challenges to digital evidence acquisition, such as: large volume of evidences, diversity of evidence sources, complex evidences types, evidences inconsistency, poor internal relations among evidences and overmuch invalid data, etc. In that case, this paper presents a two-dimensional framework for digital evidence acquisition. Firstly, The framework reuses the former experience of existed cases to locate the position of digital evidence with case-based reasoning approach. Secondly, with the assistance of the expert knowledge base built on Ontology, the method can solve the problem of diverse evidence sources. And with the assistance of the inference engine of the knowledge base ,the method can dig out the inner-relationship among evidences and delimit the evidences’ content at the same time. By combining the two dimensions -- the position and the content of digital evidence acquisition, this method can eliminate the invalid data, improve the efficiency and avoid the conflict among evidences. It provides a high-efficiency and solid analytic basis for the follow-up work.
Currently, Bayesian statistical inference is being developed into an international standard logical framework for the evaluation of forensic science evidence. It uses prior knowledge and evidence information to evaluate the probability of an event (if a hypothesis is true) through statistical inference and probability estimates. In Bayesian framework for the evaluation of forensic evidence, first, the forensic expert make statistical evaluation on the ratio of the probabilities of obtaining evidence given two competing hypotheses (prosecution hypothesis and defense hypothesis)—likelihood ratio, and quantitatively demonstrate the value of the evidence. Then, the triers of fact in court calculate posterior odds under two hypotheses given the evidence using likelihood ratio multiplied prior odds. Finally, the triers of fact update their prior beliefs using likelihood ratios, and make fact inference. This is not only the innovation of forensic science but also the advance in the admission and evaluation of forensic evidence, which is significant for impelling the scientific application of forensic evidence and judicial civilization.
Objective A new method of overlapped fingerprint development by gel-lifter is presented, and the overlapped normal latent fingerprints on glass slides were developed by an adhesive fingerprint gel-lifter. Methods The gel-lifter was made by adhesive gelatin (Gel)，polyurethane substrate(PU) and polyethylene terephthalate film(PET). Six overlapped fingerprint samples that deposited on glass slides with 0.5-24h interval time were made. And the samples were respectively lifted in series by the gel-lifter to observe the influence of fingerprint age on development effect. Furthermore, a coefficient of interval time between marks deposited Td [Td = (t1-t2)· t2-e], was firstly introduced to discussed the developing results of overlapped fingerprints. Results The gel-lifter repeatedly lifting has good effects on overlapped fingerprint separation and development. And when the coefficient of interval time Td≥0.28, thorough 2 or 3 times adhesive gel-lifter lifting, the overlapped fingerprint ridge interference was eliminated and the single fingerprint image was gained with clear detail and high background contrast. Conclusions The new method of gel-lifter repeatedly lifting could effectively eliminate the ridge interference and develop single fingerprint image from original overlapped fingerprint. This method has some advantages on speed, simplicity, effect and reliability, and more research and application of gel-lifter should be expected in overlapped fingerprint development.
Objective Seven commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods（including six commercially available extraction kits and Trizol organic extraction）was compared to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA/miRNA. Methods We set up samples of dried peripheral blood for extraction of RNA by six commercially available extraction kits and Trizol organic extraction methods respectively. RNA quality was assessed by UV spectrophotometer, agar gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis. Results The results showed that different methods exhibited considerable differences between quality assessment and levels. Trizol organic RNA extraction method and RNeasy? Mini Kit can get RNA/miRNA with good quantity and quality(Total RNA quantity: ＞1353.50±78.87ng, OD: ＞1.84±0.03). Conclusions In terms of quantity, quality, and quantitative PCR based analysis, the RNeasy? Mini Kit and Trizol are more suitable for extracting RNA/miRNA from peripheral blood.
In Digital evidence examination work, Android phones account for a large proportion. In the past, in order to fully extract and recover data as possible from Android Phone, examiner try to get root (system highest authority) authority for to get physical dump of Android Phone. With the Android system version constantly updated, get root authority of Android phone is more and more difficult, also with high risk of damage to data. So get physical dump of Android phones without root is method more standardized in digital forensic.
Objective To explore the points for identification of carbon monoxide poisoning death caused by burning charcoal in closed room. Methods Twenty cases of carbon monoxide poisoning death caused by burning charcoal in closed room during 2013-2015 in Wenzhou, Zhejiang were included. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed.Results The majority of cases had been identified as suicide. Last messages in letters, electrical goods, and social media might be direct evidence.Conclusion Self-behavior in the scene is the main feature of suicide, and it is a necessary but not sufficient condition for manner of death determination.
Abstract: Objective the experiment is based on the ink changes of files printed by laser printing, finding out the traces which can reflect the stability on the same machine and can reflect the characteristics of the individual differences on different machine. Construct a machine recognition method on the basis of the traces. Methods The academic papers is based on laser printing files, using Matlab software programming for image preprocessing, gray information extraction, the Fourier series expansion is used to algorithm to extract frequency spectrum of 15 major “peak”, calculation the height width position to build a Euro space, finally giving an output value as the evaluation standard, the greater the value is showed, the greater the difference between examination and samples for examination and conversely the more similar samples. Results After experiment it was found that the coincidence rate which latter is greater than former was 95.8% in the two comparing results, the results which the latter is more than twice as the former account for 79.2% of all, for most of the samples between the latter and the former there is a significant difference on the order of magnitude. For the same type of different machines and the latter also greater than the former but there is no clear advantage on number of differences of orders of magnitude. Conclusion The laser printing machine recognition algorithms are practical and effective, especially for different models, for the same type of different machines also presented the bigger difference in this experiment Under the condition of control, 2 * 105 can be used as a threshold effectively rule out the possibility that derived from the same machine
Because of male-specific property, Y chromosome are haploidly inherited in a paternal lineage. Y-STRs which were mainly applied for investigations of sexual assault and paternity before, have been introduced into criminal investigation field theses years. Consequently, the new-established method ‘Y-STRs familial searching’ becomes a powerful tool for criminal detection. However in some practical cases, the Y-STRs genotyping were differences between evidence at the scence and suspected samples screened are significant due to mutations of Y-STRs, leading to the difficulty when performing familial searching based on Y-STRs genotyping. A typical case which exist mutation of four Y-STRs sites, is cited in the article to illuminate data analysis strategy related, and offer suggestions for sites selection for the Y-STRs database construction as well.
Abstract: Site inspection is one of the important approaches for criminal investigation. Combined site inspection, autopsy, evidence examination, and information from case investigation, the suspected murder scene could be reasonably analyzed in order to rebuild the process of the murder, deduce the murderer’s action and psychological characteristics. To the maximum extent, these steps could provide clue, reduce the scope of investigation, and indicate the direction for criminal investigations. This study reported a criminal investigation of a skeletonization of body. Though this case report, we reviewed the typical theory and approaches of criminal site inspection, recognized the relationship between the criminal processes and the participants’ actions, evaluated the site reconstruction and characterization theory in murder site analysis.
In the modern investigation relying on the big data platform, through the multi-police synthesis of operations in the big investigation mode, the video detection has become an important part of the big investigation mode. Traditional video investigators often need to watch and analyze mass video. This kind of investigation is not only time consuming and laborious, but also because of the negligence of the investigators, the key investigation information is missing. In view of the problems and challenges in the current public security work, the paper calls on the national public security innovation work to explore the target retrieval algorithm in the video, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the various algorithms. Target retrieval algorithm (hereinafter referred to as "algorithm"). The algorithm can adapt to the background changes in real time under the fixed camera and analyze and compare the multi - moving target in the video to realize the quick retrieval of the video target.
Objective To study Effects of IL-1 Activities Secreted by PMΦs。Methods peritoneal macrophages in vitro，The relative activity of IL-1 was evalued by the cell culture and the mouse thymocyte proliferation methods。Results Heroin can promote the mouse PMΦ secreting IL-1, and significantly increase the IL-1 activites in vitro。Conclusion Heroin can speed up the mouse APD course by promoting IL-1secretion。
13th Five-Year plan period is an important period of strategic opportunities for the development of forensic science. On the basis of summarizing the current status of forensic science, this paper puts forward the goal of forensic science in the new era, strengthening the overall design of the whole chain, focusing on solving common problems and promoting the overall promotion of all disciplines. Therefore, in the 13th Five-Year plan period, forensic science should focus on advancing basic theoretical research, suspect characterization research, evidence analysis and tracing research and quality assurance research, in order to achieve breakthrough of theory and technology and promotion of identification quality. Finally, this paper looks into the trend of intellectualization, standardization and industrialization of the future development of forensic science.
In recent years , direct analysis in real time ( DART)，which was a new ambient ionization and a non-contact thermal desorption/ionization source, is a revolutionary mass spectrometry ionization technology. Because of the simplicity of this innovation, the forensic laboratory could analyze the sample on-site, direct, non-destructive, rapid and in-situ. The principle of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and its applications in forensic toxicological analysis was introduced in this paper. DART has the potential to significantly impact on forensic science laboratory in the future.
Objective To evaluate the technical performance and forensic applicability of the SureID® PanGlobal Human DNA Identification kit. Methods In compliance with the GA/T 815-2009, the SureID® PanGlobal kit was verified in nine terms of sensitivity, accuracy, balance, species specificity, adaptability, consistency, stability, survivability and mixed samples. Results The SureID® PanGlobal kit meets the professional requirements with its internal standard and ladder, together with the accuracy of positive controls, the excellent detection sensitivity, the balance and the species specificity. All the results were correct among 10 repetitive freezing-thawing of the kit. The endurance was shown by the kit against either the degraded or the inhibitor-spiked DNA samples under certain conditions. The genetic polymorphisms were successfully detected with a variety of diversely-disposed DNA samples, along with the consistency of their genotyping results. Conclusions All the tests demonstrated that SureID® PanGlobal Human DNA Identification kit is adaptive to the requirements for the human fluorescent STR multiplex PCR reagent. Since its technical level has reached up to that of the international similar products, the kit can be used in personal identification, paternity test and genetic analysis, suitable for handling actual criminal cases and DNA database building.
The investigators or on-site inspection personnel on site analysis, can be found by inspection of the scene in the process of human activities trace, study of human behavior, combined with the body damage characteristics, and analyze the activities and behavior, to achieve the purpose of scene reconstruction. This paper introduces one rental death cases, on-site inspection personnel by on-site inspection and inspection bodies, successfully on the scene and human activity trajectories were analyzed to scene reconstruction, provides an important technical support for the judgment of the nature of the case.
Objective The effect of blocking and attenuation of blasting noise on the site of building explosion was studied by experiments. Methods Using the shallow-tunnel explosion to simulate explosion inside the building, and stacked sandbags to simulate blocking wall plugging.explosion test agents used TNT, using group charge mode of initiation charge, respectively 5, 20, 40, 80, 120kg. Results The explosion noise produced by the explosion inside the building obviously reduces the noise intensity under the condition of blocking and sealing of multilayer walls. The interdiction coefficient α=0.04n , n was the number of blocking layers. Conclusion By studying the interdiction and attenuation effects of explosion noise, the initial sound pressure of explosion noise can be estimated, and the technical basis and method for the analysis and deduction of explosive equivalent of building explosion can be provided.
Objective Study on the decomposition kinetics of dichlorvos in blood changes. Method Decomposition kinetics : DDVP was added to blank pool of human cadavers blood to 0.36,0.72,1.5,3.0,5.3μg/mL, each temperature group was randomly divided into three subgroups, were respectively stored at room temperature (20℃ ), cold (4℃) , frozen (-20℃ ).In the sampling of different time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 40, 48, 64, 80, 96, 120 days) for detecting the dichlorvos content; Collection of samples: Following deproteinization by acetonitrile,an aliquot of the biological sample was injected into a C18 column(1.7µm 2.1×50mm) using 5mM Ammonium acetate-methanol as the mobile phase with the flow rate of 0.3mL/min,the injection volume was 10µL.Electro spray ionization(ESI) Indicators source was applied and operated in positive ion mode,and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode was used to quantify. Results In different concentrations of dichlorvos at different temperatures in human blood are decomposed,-20℃,4℃ group fit to a one compartment open model with a first-order kinetics and could be expressed as Ct=Coe-αt, under the condition of 20℃, the decomposition is very fast, and the kinetic equation can not be fitted. Conclusion Different concentrations of dichlorvos are decomposed in the blood, and there are great differences in different preservation conditions. It suggested that samples of DDVP poisoning cases should be submitted and detected timely.
Criminals are always growing their anti-detection awareness and updating offensive means, thereby posing many new challenges for forensic science and practice to improve and enhance the capability of mining, monitoring and deciding the potential information embedded in the evidential materials and crime scenes. This paper focuses on the analysis of body fluids’ stains. Although the morphological depiction and DNA test are presently the major resorts to analyze body fluids’ stains, their hidden information can yet be further unearthed with the physicochemical methods. Through summarizing the research progress on toxicant drugs and their metabolins in the body fluids’ stains outofsweat, blood and saliva, the toxicological discoveries and perspectives are here provided, aiming to supply a theoretical basis and reference for the study of inferring donors’ features by body fluids’ specific components.